The king of video players.
On Windows, this is especially-king because the user doesn't have to figure out and download various shady codecs.
Oldschool music players >
http://herrie.info/ (still mostly-gone as of 2016-03-31 - archive.org)
I don't know where I heard of this music player, but I had recently bookmarked it. I took a moment to check it out.
It failed my review.
My policy in general is to have as few moving parts as possible. The few inter-dependant projects, the simpler the software, the more straightforward the setup is the easier everything becomes. This is seen with my Compiled Website.
PulseAudio is a steaming pile of shit which I've never had working correctly. Even finding basic documentation on how to use it isn't out there.
A small and very fast Media Player, it suports the widespread media files that Gstreamer do support. Christine allows you to search trough your media files and play them quickly. You can create playlists to keep your files organized, use a queue and organize radio stations.
Complete garbage when I tried it
A simple python-only volume control and OSD.
Nothing fancy, and nothing difficult. There's no configuration, which is both a good and a bad thing.. but I can live with the developer's defaults. No extra dependencies to speak of. Just Python.
http://www.jpj.net/~trevor/aumix/aumix.html (semi-broken, use http://www.jpj.net/~trevor/aumix/)
This program adjusts an audio mixer from X11, the console, a terminal, the command line or a script. It uses the Open Sound System API.
This did the job when I needed the job done.
SMPlayer is yet another front end for the famous and awesome media player MPlayer. Well, it would be awesome if it wasn't so UNIX-like that it desperately needed to have a front end made. Still, it's awesome now that it has a real one.
A frontend for MPlayer.
I use this to supplement VLC
TODO - I saved some notes somewhere, which should be posted up here
A decent console music player, which I occasionally use for oldschool music on my Pandora.
http://pragha.wikispaces.com/ (dormant, as of 2015-12-11, (archive))
A neat Gtk audio player / library manager thing.
It continued from an Arch Linux user's project, Consonance.
An audio mixer.
Does bunches of stuff. I use it with a hotkey to do quick fiddling.